The Case of the Missing Equals Sign #

I was recently investigating suspiciously high CPU usage while typing in documents in Quip’s Mac app. We had recently switched to WKWebView, and this was happening in the “web content” process, suggesting that it was a JavaScript-related problem, or perhaps something related to the CSS/HTML layout computation for documents. Further examination showed that this happened even in small or simple documents, thus likely ruling out layout complexity.

I hooked up the JavaScript profiler in the web inspector’s timeline view (for something so useful, it’s rather buried), and was able to produce this inverted call graph:

JavaScript Profile Results

What was surprising was that the bulk of the time was spent in the native toString function, as opposed to any code that we had authored. However, it was unclear which toString this was (Number’s, Object’s, Date’s, etc.), or who was calling it — this profile is from the minified JavaScript in our production app, and there’s no easy way to get a full stack trace to apply a source map to. While it is possible to work with the minified code directly, especially in a codebase you’re familiar with, I was hoping to avoid that.

Hoping to get more visibility into the calling code, I switched to running the JavaScript in development mode, where the code is un-minified and served directly as ES6 modules (see our recent blog post for more details). Surprisingly, the behavior went away entirely — toString was nowhere near the top functions. While this was no doubt a clue, it didn’t help with understanding the problem directly.

I decided to take a different debugging strategy, and switched to profiling the web content process directly via the Xcode Instruments tool (along the lines of past investigations, it’s possible to determine the PID of the process and attach debugging tools to it).

Instruments Profile Results

Happily, the profile lined up with what I saw on the JS side: a lot of time is spent in a toString function. It’s now possible to see which object’s method this is, and surprisingly, it’s Function’s. Or perhaps it should not be surprising: as specified, it’s supposed to return the source code for the function, which may be an expensive operation. In the WebKit/JavaScriptCore implementation, this ends up doing a substring operation on the entire file’s source (and there appears to be no caching). This explains the difference that was observed when looking at prod vs. development mode — in prod mode there’s a single large (multi-megabyte) file, while in development the function happened to live in a smallish (a few kilobytes) file.

Now that I knew where the problem was, I added a small monkey-patch to see where the stringification was happening:

const originalToString = Function.prototype.toString;
Function.prototype.toString = function () {
    const startTime =;
    const rv =;
    const runTime = - startTime;
        `Function.prototype.toString call: ${runTime.toFixed(3)}ms`);
    return rv;

This yielded the following trace:

toString stack trace

Following through on the button.tsx stack frame pointed to a line with an if (button.type != Button) {...} expression. At first glance it does not appear to be doing any string conversions, but that is what the != operator ends up doing. This is because button is a React element, and the type property is either a string (if it’s a built-in DOM element like div or span) or a class/function (if it’s a custom element). Originally, all elements on this code path (which is invoked whenever the user types) were custom elements, thus the != was comparing one function to another. This is fast since it uses reference equality. However, at some point some DOM children were introduced, and we were comparing a string and a function. Since we’re using !=, this is a loose equality comparison, and we end up stringifying the function operand to make it comparable to the string one.

The fix turned out to be trivial: change the comparison to use !== so that strict equality is used. We’ve been preferring strict equality for most new code, but had not enabled the linting rule to enforce it because it’s a slog to work through all of the legacy violations. This experience shows that it’s not just a matter of preferring strict equality to avoid WAT moments, but that there are performance benefits as well.

Quip's TypeScript Migration #

Quip did a wholesale migration to TypeScript around this time last year. Now that the dust has settled and we've lived with the consequences for a while, Rafael and I wrote a couple of blog posts about it all: Part one describes the process that we chose, and part two has some anecdotes about how we solved specific problems.

In-Product Debugging Tools #

I wrote a post on the Quip blog about the various in-product debugging tools that we've developed over the years. It's been very satisfying to make and use our tools over the years, I'm glad we're finally sharing some details about them.

Quip Editor Debugging Overlay
One of the many overlays we've created

Accidental DDoSes I Have Known #

A couple of weeks I was migrating some networking code in Quip's Mac app from NSURLConnection to NSURLSession when I noticed that requests were being made significantly more often than I was expecting. While this was great during the migration (since it made exercising that code path easier), it was unexpected: the data should only have been fetched once and then cached.

After some digging, it turned out that we had a bug in the custom local caching system that sits in front our CDN (CloudFront), which we use to serve profile pictures and other non-authenticated data. Due to a catch-22 in the cache key function (which made it depend on the HTTP response), all assets would initially not be found in the local cache, and would incur a network request. The necessary data was then stored in memory, so until the app was restarted the cache would work as expected, but in the next session they would get requested again.

Chart of CloudFront requestsIt turned out that this bug had been introduced a few months prior, but since it manifested itself as a little bit of extra traffic to an external service, we didn't notice it (the only other visible manifestation would be that profile pictures would load more slowly during app startup, or be replaced with placeholders if the user happened to be offline, but we never got any reports of that).

This chart (of CloudFront requests from “Unknown” browsers, which is how our native apps are counted) shows the fix in action; the Mac app build with it was released on November 30th and was picked up by most users over the next few days.

This kind of low-grade accidental DDoS reminded of a similar bug that I investigated a few years ago at Google, while working on Chrome Extensions. A user had reported that the Gmail extension for Chrome (which my team happened to own, since we provided it as sample code) would end up consuming a lot of memory (and eventually be terminated) if the Gmail URL that it tried to fetch data from was blocked by filtering software. After some digging it turned out that the extension would enqueue two retries for every failed failure response, due to code along these lines:

var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();

... // Send off request

function handleError() {
    ... // schedule another request

xhr.onreadystatechange = function() {
    .. // Various early exits if success conditions are met

xhr.onerror = function() {

The readystatechange event always fires, including for error states that also invoke the error event handler. This behavior meant that it would quickly escalate from a request every few minutes to almost one request per second, depending on how long it remained in the blocked state. The fix turned out to be trivial, and since this was a separate package distributed via the Chrome Web Store that gets auto-updated, we could quickly fix the millions of users that had it installed.

It then occurred to me that this would not just affect users where the Gmail URL was blocked, but any user that had spotty connectivity — any HTTP failure would result in a doubling of background requests. I then called up a requests-per-second graph of the Atom feed endpoint for Gmail (which is what the extension used), and saw that it had dropped by 20,000 requests per second over the day or so that it took for the extension update to propagate.

The upshot of all this is that Google Reader at its peak had about 10,000 requests per second, thus making my overall traffic contribution to Google net negative.

Some Observations Regarding JavaScriptCore's Supported Platforms #


JavaScriptCore (JSC) is the JavaScript engine that powers WebKit (and thus Safari). I was recently browsing through its source and noticed a few interesting things:

ARM64_32 Support

Apple Watch Series 4 uses the S4 64-bit ARM CPU, but running in a mode where pointers are still 32 bits (to save on the memory overhead of a 64 -bit architecture). The watch (and its new CPU) were announced in September 2018, but support for the new ARM64_32 architecture was added in December 2017. That the architecture transition was planned in advance is no surprise (it's been in the works since the original Apple Watch was announced in 2015). However, it does show that JSC/WebKit is a good place to watch for future Apple ISA changes.

ARMv8.3 Support

The iPhone XS and other new devices that use the A12 CPU have significantly improved JavaScript performance when compared to their predecessors. It has been speculated that this is due to the A12 supporting the ARM v8.3 instruction set, which has a new floating point instruction that operates with JavaScript rounding semantics. However, it looks like support for that instruction was only added a couple of weeks ago, after the new phone launch. Furthermore, the benchmarking by the Apple engineer after the change landed showed that it was responsible for a 0.5%-2% speed increase, which while nice, does not explain most of the gain.

Further digging into the JSC source led to my noticing that JIT for the ARMv8.3 ISA (ARM64E in Apple's parlance) is not part of the open source components of JSC/WebKit (the commit that added it references a file in WebKitSupport, which is internal to Apple). So perhaps there are further changes for this new CPU, but we don't know what they are. It's an interesting counterpoint to the previous item, where Apple appears to want extra secrecy in this area. As a side note, initial support for this architecture was also added several months before the announcement (and references to ARM64E showed up more than 18 months earlier), thus another advance notice of upcoming CPU changes.

Fuschia Support

Googler Adam Barth (hi Adam!) added support for running JSC on Fuschia (Google's not-Android, not-Chrome OS operating system). Given that Google has its own JavaScript engine (V8), it's interesting to wonder why they would also want another engine running. A 9to5 Google article has the same observation, and some more speculation as to the motivation.

Google Reader: A Time Capsule from 5 Years Ago #

Google ReaderIt's now been 5 years since Google Reader was shut down. As a time capsule of that bygone era, I've resurrected to host a snapshot of what Reader was like in its final moments — visit to see a mostly-working Reader user interface.

Before you get too excited, realize that it is populated with canned data only, and that there is no persistence. On the other hand, the fact that it is an entirely static site means that it is much more likely to keep working indefinitely. I was inspired by the work that Internet Archive has done with getting old software running in a browser — Prince of Persia (which I spent hundreds of hours trying to beat) is only a click away. It seemed unfortunate that something of much more recent vintage was not accessible at all.

Right before the shutdown I had saved a copy of Reader's (public) static assets (compiled JavaScript, CSS, images, etc.) and used it to build a tool for viewing archived data. However, that required a separate server component and was showing private data. It occurred to me that I could instead achieve much of the same effect directly in the browser: the JavaScript was fetching all data via XMLHttpRequest, so it should just be a matter of intercepting all those requests. I initially considered doing this via Service Worker, but I realized that even a simple monkeypatch of the built-in object would work, since I didn't need anything to work offline.

The resulting code is in the static_reader directory of the readerisdead project. It definitely felt strange mixing this modern JavaScript code (written in TypeScript, with a bit of async/await) with Reader's 2011-vintage script. However, it all worked out, without too many surprises. Coming back to the Reader core structures (tags, streams, preferences, etc.) felt very familiar, but there were also some embarrassing moments (why did we serve timestamps as seconds, milliseconds, and microseconds, all within the same structure?).

As for myself, I still use NewsBlur every day, and have even contributed a few patches to it. The main thing that's changed is that I first read Twitter content in it (using pretty much the same setup I described a while back), with a few other sites that I've trained as being important also getting read consistently. Everything else I read much more opportunistically, as opposed to my completionist tendencies of years past. This may just be a reflection of the decreased amount of time that I have for reading content online in general.

NewsBlur has a paid tier, which makes me reasonably confident that it'll be around for years to come. It went from 587 paid users right before the Reader shutdown announcement to 8,424 shortly after to 5,345 now. While not the kind of up-and-to-right curve that would make a VC happy, it should hopefully be a sustainable level for the one person (hi Samuel!) to keep working on it, Pinboard-style.

Looking at the other feed readers that sprung up (or got a big boost in usage) in the wake of Reader's shutdown, they all still seem to be around: Feedly, The Old Reader, FeedWrangler, Feedbin, Innoreader, Reeder, and so on. One of the more notable exceptions is Digg Reader, which itself was shut down earlier this year. But there are also new projects springing up like Evergreen and Elytra and so I'm cautiously optimistic about the feed reading space.

Efficiently Loading Inlined JSON Data #

I wrote up a post on the Quip blog about more efficiently embedding JSON data in HTML responses. The tl;dr is that moving it out of a JavaScript <script> tag and parsing it separately with JSON.parse can significantly reduce the parse time for large data sizes.